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Psychology Philosophy and Education Archives - Page 3 of 51 - Cloud Essays

Psychology Philosophy and Education

Psychology Philosophy and Education

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  • Table to Group Items Representing a Common Concept


    Table to Group Items Representing a Common Concept

    Below are statements coming from different psychological scales constructed by different authors; what the scales are measuring nor the number of scales that are represented by these items are identified. Since the psychological variables measured by the items are fairly easily identifiable, create a table in which you will group those items that represent a common concept. Then, invent a construct or variable name for these items. This is an exercise that tests your intuitive abilities to spot the supposedly hidden constructs represented by these items. Consider this assignment as an “armchair” factor analysis.


    1. I feel irritable, easily agitated, and am impatient a few days before my period.
    2. I feel anxious watching a teacher work on an algebraic equation on the whiteboard.
    3. This is the dreariest time of my life.
    4. I am just as happy as when I was younger.
    5. My life could be happier than it is now.
    6. I have cramps that begin on the first day of my period.
    7. I don’t feel good being required to enroll in statistics.
    8. I expect some interesting and pleasant things to happen to me in the future.
    9. My breasts feel tender and sore a few days before my period.
    10. I feel old and somewhat tired.
    11. As I look back on my life, I am fairly well satisfied.
    12. I hate buying a math textbook.
    13. I feel depressed for several days before my period.
    14. I have backaches which begin the same day as my period.
    15. I don’t like reading and interpreting graphs or charts.
    16. I take prescription drug for the pain during my period.
    17. I’ve gotten pretty much what I expected out of life.
    18. Compared to other people, I get more the share of bad luck.
    19. I don’t like being told how to interpret probability statements.
    20. For several days before my period I feel exhausted, lethargic or tired.
    21. Most of the things I do are boring or monotonous.
    22. I’m feel my chest pound when I walk into a math class.
    23. I have abdominal pain or discomfort which begins one day before my period.
    24. I would not change my life even if I could.
    25. I’m anxious when I am waiting to get a math test returned even when I expect to have done well.
    26. The pain I have with my period is not intense but a continuous dull aching.
    27. I feel weak and dizzy during my period.
    28. I feel restless listening to somebody explaining a math formula.
    29. As I grow older, things seem better than I thought they would be.
    30. I have gotten more of the breaks in life than most of the people I know.

    Psychological Constructs, Concepts, and the Nature of Measurement > Week 2

    Week: 2

    The Construct Under Investigation and Conceptualizing a Tool to Measure it

    One of the indispensable parts in scale construction is to first get a good grasp of the ‘concept’ under investigation. Then, review the information written on the concept of interest. Only then can you decide whether there are subcomponents or dimensions under that concept. Be sure to provide a working definition of this concept, which may be based on a theory. Providing a definition for the concept and setting certain parameters based on a theory transforms the concept into a construct. Once this is clear in your mind, then you can start composing items that represent the construct.

    Although many authors use the terms concept and construct interchangeably, a concept refers to observed instances in the empirical world that are argued to be related enough and are imported at an abstract level. Once this concept is narrowed for the purposes of setting parameters within a research context, it becomes a construct. Pushing the envelope further, once the definitions are concretized and rules are set (for instance in an experiment) on how to measure or produce the constructs—they become variables.

    But first, it is important to have a very clear understanding of the concept or construct of choice.

    Be sure to review this week’s resources carefully. You are expected to apply the information from these resources when you prepare your assignments.

  • Psychological Constructs and Tests Solutions


    Psychological Constructs and Tests Solutions

     Psychological Constructs, Concepts, and the Nature of Measurement > Week 1

    Describe Psychological Constructs and Tests

    Week: 1

    Psychological Tests

    Activity Description

    For this task, write a paper in which you answer the following questions and complete the following:

    1. What is a psychological construct? How are concepts and constructs typically measured in the field of psychology? Use the readings and outside sources (if you like) to defend your answer.
    2. What is a psychological test? What is the unique value of a test as compared to some other means of getting information about people? Use the readings and outside sources (if you like) to defend your answer.
    3. Answer Kline (Chapter 1, questions 1, 2, 5, and 6)
    1. Choose one construct of interest that you intend to make a scale on. Provide a conceptual definition of such construct based on existing literature. Provide a brief description of individuals who “possess” the construct or those who may score high on a scale measuring the construct and a person who might score low on the same construct.

    Length: 5 pages, not including title and reference pages.

    Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

    Learning Outcomes

    1.0   Critique the meaning and implications of measuring psychological constructs.

    2.0   Analyze the literature on a particular construct and the current tools that have been designed to measure it.


    Psychological tests are used to measure psychological constructs. The development of a scale, then, must start with gaining clarity on the meaning of the general concept as it narrows down and becomes a specific construct the tool will measure. This week you will explore what a construct is and the relationships of constructs to scales

    Be sure to review this week’s resources carefully. These include an introduction and a refresher on descriptive statistics and standard scores that are typically used in psychometrics. You are expected to apply the information from these resources when you prepare your assignments.

  • Emotions and Motivation Interview


    Week 6 Assignment: Prepare an Interview on Emotions and Motivation

    Activity Description

    For this task, imagine that you are a psychologist that is being interviewed for a 10-minute radio broadcast. You are being interviewed about how motivation and emotion influence academic achievement, and how negative motions (such as shame and guilt) motivate behavior change. Write 10-15 questions that the interviewer would ask you, and then write your response. Develop your paper as a transcript for a question and answer format.

    Length: 3 pages

    Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

    Why do we do what we do? Theories of motivation attempt to explain this with some theories that focus on biological needs such as hunger or thirst, whereas other theories focus on “higher-order” needs such as the need for achievement, love, and affiliation with others. Cognitive-dissonance theories can also explain an aspect of the motivational process.

    You may remember learning about theories of cognitive dissonance in your other psychology classes. Researchers explain that cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable cognitive state produced when people hold conflicting views. People are motivated to reduce this uncomfortable dissonance state by changing the conflicting cognition. For example, consider the case of someone who smokes cigarettes but also knows that this behavior is unhealthy. The dissonance could be reduced by quitting smoking but most likely, the person will change the cognition; for instance, the individual may downplay the health risks because he or she exercises and eats healthy foods. The research you will read this week focuses on the role of emotions in motivating behavior.

    This week, you will prepare a paper that discusses how motivation and emotions influence academic behavior and how negative emotions can motivate behavior change.

    Be sure to review this week’s resources carefully. You are expected to apply the information from these resources when you prepare your assignments.

  • Influence of emotions on memory, attention, and decision-making


    Influence of emotions on memory, attention, and decision-making

    Week 4 Assignment: Research Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making

    Activity Description

    For this task, you will write a cohesive paper addressing how emotions influence memory, attention, and decision-making. Your paper should include an overview of the research on false memory, flashbulb memories, recovered memories, selective attention, and decision-making. Please include at least 5 recent peer-reviewed articles to support your work.

    Length: 5 pages

    Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

    Last week, you examined the interdependence between emotion and cognition. This week, you continue your exploration of this concept.

    Making an appraisal or a decision can influence how emotions are experienced, but emotional states can also influence cognitive processes. For instance, are memories for emotional events accurate? If someone is an eyewitness to a crime, this is certainly an emotional event! Is the eyewitness testimony for this event accurate and should it be used to convict someone of a crime?

    As you may be aware, memory is not a unitary construct. Most researchers agree that memory can be divided into sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Long-term memory can be further subdivided into implicit and explicit memory. Implicit memory and explicit memory can also be further divided (see below).

  • Critical Analysis Worksheet


    Critical Analysis Worksheet PHL/320 Version 2

    University of Phoenix Material

    Critical Analysis Worksheet

    Read “Common Core” and “The Battle Against Common Core Standards.”

    Perform a critical analysis of each reading using critical thinking techniques from this week’s readings.

    Respond to the following based on your critical thinking analysis of the “Common Core” and “The Battle Against Common Core Standards” readings.

    • Define the term conclusion.
    • What is the conclusion of each article?
    • Define the term premises.
    • What premises support the conclusions in each article?
    • How convincing is the conclusion of each article? Explain your answer.
    • Define the term biases.


    • What biases did you observe in each article? Why do you think they are biases?


    • What might be the sources of the biases in each article?


  • Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet


    Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet PHL/320 Version 1

    University of Phoenix Material

    Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies Worksheet

    The following are some common rhetorical strategies:

    • Innuendo: a leading suggestion
    • Stereotype: generalized statements relating to a group of people
    • Loaded questions: questions based on unjustified assumptions
    • Hyperbole: an extreme exaggeration

    Identify the rhetorical strategy in each of the following statements.

    1. I did not say the meat was tough. I said I did not see the horse that is usually outside (W. C. Fields). 
    2. Have you stopped beating your wife?
    3. The Maserati is the best car in the world!
    4. All men love football; all women love the ballet.

    The following are some common rhetorical fallacies:

    • Slippery slope: If A happens, then B–Z will follow. Therefore, to prevent B–Z from happening, do not allow A to occur.
    • Hasty generalization: rushing to form a conclusion based on assumptions; not based on clear evidence
    • Post hoc ergo propter hoc: If A occurs after B, then B caused A.
    • Either/or: looking at a situation from only two sides, or oversimplifying the situation
    • Ad hominem: attacking the person rather than attacking the argument
    • Red herring or smoke screen: introducing an unrelated topic as a diversionary tactic

    Identify the rhetorical fallacy in each of the following statements.

    1. We can either stop using plastic, or destroy the Earth
    2. I ate tuna for lunch and now I do not feel well, so the tuna made me ill.
    3. If you enjoy a social drink, it could lead to you becoming an alcoholic, so you probably should never drink.
    4. Even though this is the first week of class, I can tell this is going to be a very easy course.
    5. We know that smoking can affect your health, but how else will tobacco farmers earn a living? _
    6. As the candidate for mayor, he has some good ideas, but we know that all politicians are dishonest.
  • Critical Thinking Discussion and Summary


    PHL/320 Week 1 Critical Thinking Discussion and Summary, assignment

    Question description

    Participate in a class discussion by responding to the following questions:

    • How would you define critical thinking? What makes a person a critical thinker?
    • Why is critical thinking important? Provide an example of how critical thinking has helped you in your life.
    • What do you expect to learn from this course?

    Write a paragraph summarizing the discussion.

    Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment



    As you have read, there are many theories of emotion. For this task you will select four of the theories described. One of the theories you select should be a biological theory. After selecting the four theories you will construct a table describing the main characteristics of each theory along with its strengths and weaknesses.

    Length: 2-3 pages table

  • Questions to What is academic language


    Answer each question :

    • What is academic language?
    • How can we help K-12 students to build the academic language that they need to succeed in school?
    • What does edTPA ask for regarding Academic Language?
    • How can the university support teacher education candidates (you) in embedding academic language into classroom practice?
    • How would you explain the importance of academic language in non-technical terms (to a parent, for example)?
    • Explain what the author of the slide show means when he uses the analogy on slide number 9.
    • Slide 12 instructs us that teachers need to helps students practice language function. Briefly describe two ways you could do this in your class (give the grade level).
    • What are the three steps to teaching academic language?
    • Explain the difference between the bricks and mortar words on slide number 18.
    • Slide 22 provides steps for teaching academic language. However, they sound a little complicated.  Simplify the steps.  Restate them in your own words so they are easier to understand.
    • Review slide number 26. What is your opinion about these steps?  Do you think they are necessary? Do you see yourself following them in your lessons?  Why or why not?
    • Review slides 28, 29, and 30.
      • What do they have in common with Syntax?
      • Provide a brief example of a way you have or might use sentence frames.
    • Justify the importance of backwards mapping.
    • What does the quote on slide 75 mean to you?
    • Considering the content of this course,
      • What are some big ideas you took away from this course?
      • What are some questions you still have after hearing/reading/practicing the content of the course?