Business and Management

Business and Management

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  • Chapter 30 Key Question Answers

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    Chapter 30 Key Question Answers

    30-2     (Key Question)  Assume that a hypothetical economy with an MPC of .8 is experiencing severe recession.  By how much would government spending have to increase to shift the aggregate demand curve rightward by $25 billion?  How large a tax cut would be needed to achieve this same increase in aggregate demand?  Why the difference?  Determine one possible combination of government spending increases and tax decreases that would accomplish this same goal.

    30-3     (Key Question)  What are government’s fiscal policy options for ending severe demand-pull inflation?  Which of these fiscal policy options do you think might be favored by a person who wants to preserve the size of government?  A person who thinks the public sector is too large? How does the ‘ratchet effect’ affect anti-inflationary policy.

    30-6     (Key Question)  Define the “standardized budget,” explain its significance, and state why it may differ from the “actual budget.”  Suppose the full-employment, noninflationary level of real output is GDP3 (not GDP2) in the economy depicted in Figure 30.3.  If the economy is operating at GDP2  instead of GDP3, what is the status of its standardized budget?  The status of its current fiscal policy?  What change in fiscal policy would you recommend?  How would you accomplish that in terms of the G and T lines in the figure?

    30‑8     (Key Question)  Briefly state and evaluate the problem of time lags in enacting and applying fiscal policy.  Explain the notion of a political business cycle.  How might expectations of a near-term policy reversal weaken fiscal policy based on changes in tax rates?  What is the crowding‑out effect and why might it be relevant to fiscal policy?    In view of your answers, explain the following statement:  “Although fiscal policy clearly is useful in combating the extremes of severe recession and demand-pull inflation, it is impossible to use fiscal policy to fine-tune the economy to the full-employment, noninflationary level of real GDP and keep the economy there indefinitely.”

    30-10   (Key Question)  How do economists distinguish between the absolute and relative sizes of the public debt?  Why is the distinction important?  Distinguish between refinancing the debt and retiring the debt.  How does an internally held public debt differ from an externally held public debt?  Contrast the effects of retiring an internally held debt and retiring an externally held debt.

    30-13   (Key Question)  Trace the cause-and-effect chain through which financing and refinancing of the public debt might affect real interest rates, private investment, the stock of capital, and economic growth.  How might investment in public capital and complementarities between public and private capital alter the outcome of the cause-effect chain?

  • Solutions to Econ Chapter 24 Key Questions

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    Solutions to Econ Chapter 24 Key Questions

    24-3     (Key Question)  Why do economists include only final goods in measuring GDP for a particular year?  Why don’t they include the value of stocks and bonds sold?  Why don’t they include the value of used furniture bought and sold?

    24-8     (Key Question)  Below is a list of domestic output and national income figures for a given year.  All figures are in billions.  The questions that follow ask you to determine the major national income measures by both the expenditure and income methods.  The results you obtain with the different methods should be the same.

       
    Personal consumption expenditures

    Net foreign factor income

    Transfer payments

    Rents

    Statistical discrepancy

    Consumption of fixed capital (depreciation)

    Social security contributions

    Interest

    Proprietors’ income

    Net exports

    Dividends

    Compensation of employees

    Taxes on production and imports

    Undistributed corporate profits

    Personal taxes

    Corporate income taxes

    Corporate profits

    Government purchases

    Net private domestic investment

    Personal saving

    $245

    4

    12

    14

    8

    27

    20

    13

    33

    11

    16

    223

    18

    21

    26

    19

    56

    72

    33

    20

       

     

    1. Using the above data, determine GDP by both the expenditure and the income approaches. Then determine NDP.
    2. Now determine NI: first, by making the required additions and subtractions from GDP; and second, by adding up the types of income and taxes that make up NI.
    3. Adjust NI (from part b) as required to obtain PI.
    4. Adjust PI (from part c) as required to obtain DI.

    24‑11   (Key Question) Suppose that in 1984 the total output in a single-good economy was 7,000 buckets of chicken.  Also suppose that in 1984 each bucket of chicken was priced at $10.  Finally, assume that in 2000 the price per bucket of chicken was $16 and that 22,000 buckets were purchased.  Determine the GDP price index for 1984, using 2000 as the base year.  By what percentage did the price level, as measured by this index, rise between 1984 and 2000? Use the two methods listed in Table 24.6 to determine real GDP for 1984 and 2000.

    24-12   (Key Question)  The following table shows nominal GDP and an appropriate price index for a group of selected years.  Compute real GDP.  Indicate in each calculation whether you are inflating or deflating the nominal GDP data.

           
     

    Year

    Nominal GDP,

    Billions

    Price index

    (2000 = 100)

    Real GDP,

    Billions

           
           
    1964

    1974

    1984

    1994

    2004

     

    $663.6

    1500.0

    3933.2

    7072.2

    11734.3

     

      22.13

    34.73

    67.66

    90.26

    109.10

     

      $ ______

    $ ______

    $ ______

    $ ______

    $ ______

     

  • Challenges of Being a Female Boss

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    Challenges of Being a Female Boss

    Students must prepare a Ten-page research paper (APA Style) on any current global or U.S. Organizational Behavior issue covered in one or more course textbook chapters.Your final paper will need to include references (at least 5 non-internet – academic journals, books, or professional publications), and a bibliography/re-ference page. My topic is Female Boss

  • FIN534 Homework Set 2 Solutions

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    FIN534 Homework Set 2

    Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate document. Explain how you reached the answer or show your work if a mathematical calculation is needed, or both. Submit your assignment using the assignment link in the course shell. This homework assignment is worth 100 points. Assume that you are nearing graduation and have applied for a job with a local bank. The bank’s evaluation process requires you to take an examination that covers several financial analysis techniques. Use the following information for Questions 1 through 2:

    1. What is the present value of the following uneven cash flow stream −$50, $100, $75, and $50 at the end of Years 0 through 3? The appropriate interest rate is 10%, compounded annually
    2. Suppose that on January 1 you deposit $100 in an account that pays a nominal (or quoted) interest rate of 11.33463%, with interest added (compounded) daily. How much will you have in your account on October 1, or 9 months later? $108.85

    Questions 3 and 4: A firm issues a 10-year, $1,000 par value bond with a 10% annual coupon and a required rate of return is 10%.

    1. What is the yield to maturity on a 10-year, 9% annual coupon, $1,000 par value bond that sells for $887.00? That sells for $1,134.20? What does a bond selling at a discount or at a premium tell you about the relationship between rd and the bond’s coupon rate?
    2. What are the total return, the current yield, and the capital gains yield for the discount bond in Question #3 at $887.00? At $1,134.20? (Assume the bond is held to maturity and the company does not default on the bond.)
  • FIN 534 Boehm’s Homework Set 10

    $20.00
    Data for question 1 – 4        
         
    growth rate 8% (for past 10 years)    
    dividends 2013 2.6 million    
    Net Income 2013 9.8 million    
    Net Income 2014 12.6 million    
    Investment 7.3 million    
    target debt ratio 35%    
                 
    Calculate Boehm’s total dividends for 2014 under each of the following policies:  
     
    1 Its 2014 dividend payment is set to force dividends to grow at the long-run growth rate in earnings.  
    2 It continues the 2013 dividend payout ratio.  
    3 It uses a pure residual policy with all distributions in the form of dividends (35% of the $7.3 million investment is financed with debt).  
    4 It employs a regular-dividend-plus-extras policy, with the regular dividend being based on the long-run growth rate and the extra dividend being set according to the residual policy.  
    5 What is the incremental profit? To get a rough idea of the project’s profitability, what is the project’s expected rate of return for the next year (defined as the incremental profit divided by the  
    investment)? Should the firm make the investment? Why or why not?  
    6 Would the firm’s break-even point increase or decrease if it made the change?  
    7 What is the return on equity for each firm if the interest rate on current liabilities is12% and the rate on long-term debt is 15%?  
    8 Assume that the short-term rate rises to 20%, that the rate on new long-term debt rises to 16%, and that the rate on existing long-term debt remains unchanged. What would be the return on
    equity for Firm A and Firm B under these conditions?
    9 In 1983 the Japanese yen-U.S. dollar exchange rate was 250 yen per dollar, and the dollar cost of a compact Japanese-manufactured car was $10,000. Suppose that now the exchange rate is  
    120 yen per dollar. Assume there has been no inflation in the yen cost of an automobile so that all price changes are due to exchange rate changes. What would the dollar price of the car be  
    now, assuming the car’s price changes only with exchange rates?  

     

  • Final Paper Financial Analysis Apple, Inc.

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    BUS 650 Week 6 Final Paper Financial Analysis Apple, Inc.

    The Final Project will involve applying the concepts learned in class to an analysis of a company using data from its annual report. Using the concepts from this course, you will analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company and write a report either recommending or not recommending purchase of the company stock.

    The completed report should include:

    An introduction to the company, including background information.

    A complete and thorough financial statement review.

    Pro Forma financial statements (Balance Sheet and Income Statement) for the next two fiscal years, assuming a 10% growth rate in sales and Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) for each of the next two years.

    Complete ratio analysis for the last fiscal year using at least two ratios from each of the following categories:

    a. Liquidity

    b. Financial leverage

    c. Asset management

    d. Profitability

    e. Market value

    Calculate Return on Equity (ROE) using the DuPont system.

    Assess management performance by calculating Economic Value Added (EVA).

    Review of the soundness of the company’s financial policies (e.g. capital structure, debt, leverage, dividend policy, etc.) based on the material covered during class.

    A synopsis of your findings, including your recommendations and rationale for whether or not to purchase stock from this company.

    This report should be 15 – 20 pages long excluding title page and reference page(s) using APA 6th edition formatting guidelines. Support your findings and recommendations with evidence from at least five scholarly sources in addition to the annual report; such as the textbook, industry reports, and articles from the Ashford library. Be sure to include links to websites that were used as references or to access company information.

  • FIN 534 Week 4 Homework Set

    $12.50

    FIN 534 Week 4 Homework Set

    Fin534 Financial Management

    1. What is the present value of the following uneven cash flow stream − $50, $100, $75, and $50 at the end of Years 0 through 3? The appropriate interest rate is 10%, compounded annually
    2. We sometimes need to find out how long it will take a sum of money (or something else, such as earnings, population, or prices) to grow to some specified amount. For example, if a company’s sales are growing at a rate of 20% per year, how long will it take sales to double?
    3. Will the future value be larger or smaller if we compound an initial amount more often than annually — for example, every 6 months, or semiannually—holding the stated interest rate constant? Why?
    4. What is the effective annual rate (EAR or EFF%) for a nominal rate of 12%, compounded semiannually? Compounded quarterly? Compounded monthly? Compounded daily?
    1. Suppose that on January 1 you deposit $100 in an account that pays a nominal (or quoted) interest rate of 11.33463%, with interest added (compounded) daily. How much will you have in your account on October 1, or 9 months later?
    2. What would be the value of the bond described above if, just after it had been issued, the expected inflation rate rose by 3 percentage points, causing investors to require a 13 % return? Would we now have a discount or a premium bond?
    1. What would happen to the bond’s value if inflation fell and declined to 7%? Would we now have a premium or a discount bond?
    2. What is the yield to maturity on a 10-year, 9% annual coupon, $1,000 par value bond that sells for $887.00? That sells for $1,134.20? What does a bond selling at a discount or at a premium tell you about the relationship between and the bond’s coupon rate?
    3. What are the total return, the current yield, and the capital gains yield for the discount bond in Question #8 at $887.00? At $1,134.20?  (Assume the bond is held to maturity and the company does not default on the bond.)
  • Goodman Industries’ and Landry Quiz

    $20.00
    Directions: Answer the following questions on this document.  Explain how you reached the answer
    or show your work if a mathematical calculation is needed, or both.  Submit your assignment using
    the assignment link in the course shell.  This homework assignment is worth 100 points.
     
    Use the following information for questions 1 through 8:
    The Goodman Industries’ and Landry Incorporated’s stock prices and dividends, along with the Market
    Index, are shown below.  Stock prices are reported for December 31 of each year, and dividends reflect
    those paid during the year.  The market data are adjusted to include dividends.
    Goodman Industries Landry Incorporated Market Index
    Year Stock Price Dividend Stock Price Dividend Includes Divi- dends
    2013 $25.88 $1.73 $73.13 $4.50 17.49 5.97
    2012 22.13 1.59 78.45 4.35 13.17 8.55
    2011 24.75 1.50 73.13 4.13 13.01 9.97
    2010 16.13 1.43 85.88 3.75 9.65 1.05
    2009 17.06 1.35 90.00 3.38 8.40 3.42
    2008 11.44 1.28 83.63 3.00 7.05 8.96
    1. Use the data given to calculate the annual returns for Goodman, Landry, and the Market Index, and
    then calculate average annual returns for the two stocks and the index.  (Hint: Remember, returns
    are calculated by subtracting the beginning price from the ending price to get the capital gain or
    loss, adding the dividend to the capital gain or loss, and then dividing the result by the beginning
    price.  Assume that dividends are already included in the index,  Also, you cannot calculate the
    rate of return for 2008 because you do not have 2007 data.)        
    2.  Calculate the standard deviations of the returns for Goodman, Landry, and the Market Index.
    (Hint: Use the sample standard deviation formula given in the chapter, which corresponds to the
    STDEV function in Excel.)              

     

    3. Estimate Goodman’s and Landry’s betas as the slopes of regression lines with stock return on the 
    vertical axis (y-axis) and market return on the horizontal axis (x-axis).  (Hint: Use Excel’s SLOPE
    function.)  Are these betas consistent with your graph?        

     

    4. The risk-free rate on long-term Treasury bonds is 6.04%.  Assume that the market risk premium is
    5%.  What is the required return on the market using the SML equation?    
    5.  If you formed a portfolio that consisted of 50% Goodman stock and 50% Landry stock, what would
    be its beta and its required return.            
    6. What dividends do you expect for Goodman Industries stock over the next 3 years if you expect the
    dividend to grow at the rate of 5% per year for the next 3 years?  In other words, calculate  
    D1, D2, and D3.  Note that D0 = $1.50            
    7. Assume that Goodman Industries’ stock, currently trading at $27.05, has a required return of 13%.
    You will use this required return rate to discount dividends.  Find the present value of the  
    dividend stream, that is, calculate the PV of D!, D2, and D3, and then sum these PVs.  
    8. If you plan to buy the the stock, hold it for 3 years, and then sell it for $27.05, what is the
    most you should pay for it? (Problem 7-19)          
    Use the following information for Question 9:
    Suppose now that the Good Industries (1) trades at a current stock price of $30 with a (2) strike price
    of $35.  Given the following information: (3) time to expiration is 4 months, (annualized risk-free rate
    is 5%, and (5) variance of stock return is .25.
    9. What is the price for a call option using the Black-Scholes model?      

     

  • Danone Strategy Case Study

    $25.00

    Danone Strategy  Case Study

    Index

    Introduction       4

    Chapter 1: Distinctive features of Danone’s strategy under Franck Riboud’s leadership   5

    1.1 Danone’s strategy    6

    1.2 A social business       6

    1.3 Change of governance           7

    Chapter 2: Successfulness of Danone’s strategy                8

    2.1 Corporate strategy successfulness    8

    2.2 Dairy division successfulness               9

    2.3 Water Division successfulness             9

    2.4 Early life nutrition successfulness      9

    2.5 Medical nutrition successfulness       9

    Chapter 3: Extend of food industry local or global.            10

    Chapter 4: Danone’s competitive advantage.      12

    Chapter 5: Recommendations    14

    References         17

    Appendix 1: Danone’s sales business lines 1996 – 2014    21

    Appendix 2: Porters 5-forces model        22

    2.1 Porter five forces analysis     22

    Competitive rivalry          22

    Power of suppliers          24

    Consumer bargaining power       24

    Substitutes         24

    Barriers of entry               24

    Appendix 3: Financial information Danone 2009 – 2014 (values in € million)           25

    Appendix 3.1: Danone income per product category.      26

    Appendix 3.2: Net profit/income  (depending on annual report)                26

    Appendix 3.3 Sales comparison 26

    Appendix 3.3 Dividend  26

    Appendix 3.4: Comparison dairy products profits in millions         27

    Appendix 3.5: Comparison water products profits in millions       27

    Appendix 3.6: Comparison medical nutrition products profits in millions 27

    Appendix 3.7 Danone Cash flow                27

    Appendix 4: Threshold and distinctive capabilities             28

    Appendix 5: VRIN model              29

    Appendix 6: SWOT analysis          30

    Appendix 7: Value network         31

    Appendix 8: BCG matrix                34

    Appendix 9 comparison of business structures   35