Religion and Sociology

Religion and Sociology

Showing 55–63 of 372 results

  • Differences between men entrepreneurs and women entrepreneurs


    Differences between men entrepreneurs and women entrepreneurs

    What are the differences (if any) between men entrepreneurs and women entrepreneurs? Do they become entrepreneurs for the same reasons or for different reasons? Does a certain gender tend to run their business differently than the other gender? As a general rule, do they have different leadership styles? These are all questions we are going to explore this week.

    In 2007, the Small Business Administration released a study by Erin Kepler and Scott Shane entitled, “Are Male and FemaleEntrepreneurs Really That Different?” A sample of 685 small business entrepreneurs were surveyed about their businesses’ performance, their expectations, motivations, etc. and conclusions were drawn about gender similarities and differences. A second study, released in 2012, “Are Successful Women Entrepreneurs Different from Men?” (J. McGraph Cohoon, Vivek Wadhwa, Lesa Mitchell) also focused on the differences between men and women entrepreneurs. (This link takes you to the abstract of the study – click on “Open PDF in Browser” at the top of the page to see the full study.) Read through the introduction and findings of both of these studies. (You can scan the rest.) Are you surprised by the findings or are they what you expected them to be? Do you agree that they are accurate? Did any findings in one study differ from the other in any significant way?

    Sharon Hadary, the former and founding executive director of the Center for Women’s Business Research wrote an article for the Wall Street Journal entitled, “Why are Women-Owned Firms Smaller than Men-Owned Firms” in which she explores the reasons why the average revenues for majority women-owned businesses are only 27% of majority men-owned businesses (according to 2008 data). Having read the two studies previously mentioned, do you think that this data is expected or unexpected? Do you agree with Ms. Hadary’s analysis and assertions?

    Do you think size and revenue are the best indicators of success and equality among businesses of different genders? Doug Hickok, CEO of the Institute for Provocative Leadership wrote an article on his blog, “Journal Gets It Wrong/Right About Women Business Owners”. What do you think about his opinions about women business owners and Sharon Hadary’s article? What do you think the differences in size and revenue of women-owned and men-owned businesses show about the differences in their motivations, expectations, performance, etc.?

    Recently, researchers looked at 90,000 projects on, and analyzed their success. Listen to the NPR segment here to hear their findings about why there are less women entrepreneurs than men. Do you agree or disagree with the findings? Do you think that the male and female traits they discuss really make a difference in their choices to become entrepreneurs and the success they will achieve? This Forbes article also looks at traits of entrepreneurs by gender. What do you think? How will these traits translate into entrepreneurial success?

    Are there differences in the way men and women lead? Will each gender tend to run their business differently from the other? Read Magaret Heffernan’s article, “Men Dominate, Women Orchestrate” to hear her thoughts on the differences in gender leadership styles. Do you agree or disagree? Do you think that leadership style can be categorized by gender, or are there too many other variables?

    Catalyst conducted a study on the stereotyping of men’s and women’s leadership styles and how that affects perception and reality in work situations. Read the summary and findings about the study, “Women” Take Care,” Men “Take Charge:” Stereotyping of U.S. Business Leaders Exposed.”  What do you think of the findings? Does it make you think of the two previous articles differently? Are there any aspects you disagree with?

    After reading the above studies and articles, and using your prior knowledge and experiences, discuss whether you think there are differences between men and women entrepreneurs or not? And if so, how do they affect the success and prosperity of a company? Do you think one gender is better equipped to run a business than the other? This article suggests findings that that may be the case. However, this articlegives reasons for a different viewpoint. Do you agree or disagree? Do you think that certain gender traits will make certain aspects of the entrepreneurial venture easier for one gender or the other? What have your experiences been with male and female business leaders?

    Also, consider your own experiences thus far. We have both men and women in this course. Do you think you learn differently? Process information differently? See the world differently? Or do you think that the male and female experience is much more uniform than it has been in previous generations? Do you think that the world is changing, and future entrepreneurs may not exhibit the current differences that are being studied now? Or do you think that experiences are still different for men and women?

  • Major Religions of the World


    Major Religions of the World: CHRISTIANITY – EASTERN ORTHODOXY

    Topic:  Major Religions of the World
    Provide an overview of your “assigned” religion.

    Essay should include information regarding (at minimum):
    • # of adherents
    • predominant global location(s)
    • origins and history (incl. major changes over time)
    • deity
    • main tenets and beliefs (incl. behavior while on earth; what happens after death; treatment of others of same faith/different faiths; etc.)
    • basis for main tenets and beliefs
    • Format
    – 2-3 pages (minimum)
    – double-spaced
    – Times New Roman
    – 12 pt font
    – 1” margins
    • Assumed audience: Your classmates

    Additional Instructions
    • This is a research paper — references & citations as appropriate.  As with Essay 1, I do not mind which method you use as long as it is a recognized method appropriate for a college-level paper

    Some tips…
    • Remember your audience and your purpose. You are trying to provide a general introduction to your topic, not make your reader a theologian. Do not get overwhelmed by minutiae — look for and pass on the significant info.
    • Don’t assume what your reader may or may not already know about religion in general or your particular religion. Just because a certain aspect of a certain religion is well-known to you does not make it necessarily so for all your readers. e.g., do not simply reference “the Bible” – be sure to explain that this is the name of the religion’s holy book (or something to that effect).
    • What does “research” mean?
    –Check the appropriateness and pedigree of your sources.
    –Be sure to include specific references in your text, especially when you are presenting facts. If you don’t, your readers do not know whether they should believe you or whether you are simply making stuff up.
    • Be careful using non-English words. Include them for a purpose and be sure to tell your readers what the words mean.
    • Opening and closing paragraphs are critical. At the front-end, give the reader an idea of where you were going with a brief overview of your main topics. On the back-end, provide a brief re-cap of your main points (not simply the topics) and closing sentence. Do not give your reader the impression that you ran out of time and simply stopped — finish delivering your message!! Please review “Elements of an Essay.”





    Pages: 5, double spaced

  • Overcoming Adversity Admission Essay


    Overcoming Adversity
    Tell us about a time in your life in which you overcame something a serious difficulty or setback. Be sure to detail how you dealt with the situation, and what you learned from the challenge.

    One of the following topics below and write a clear, coherent argument. Your essay will be evaluated on your ability to write clearly, think logically, provide evidence for your assertions, and use proper grammar. (Maximum 500 words)

  • How gender and Sexuality are Socially Constructed and Vary


    Field Experiment: How gender and Sexuality are Socially Constructed and Vary (Draft)

    We’ve been trained since childhood to think of gender as simply male and female, and to think of differences between them as “natural.” In this essay, you will discuss how gender and sexuality are socially constructed and vary, and the various gender possibilities (Hijras, transgender, agender, etc.) and sexuality possibilities discussed in the readings. Make sure to use the ideas of boundaries and groups in your essay. Use a field experiment to discuss your position

  • Conflicts between stepparents and stepchildren


    Conflicts between stepparents and stepchildren

    Research Proposal

    A social psychoanalytic examination into the cause of conflicts between stepparents and stepchildren from a behavioural perspective.

    Pages: 12, double spaced

  • Implementation of the Development Regulation 2015


    The implementation of the Development Regulation 2015 would produce spatial plans that are informed by cultural diversity. Discuss your position in relation to the above statement.

    Follow the following examples in writing your responses.

    Example 1:

    I find it interesting that Campbell’s point of view is that poor economic conditions are a barrier to practices that preserve the environment, suggesting the market is the driver of sustainability. This is opposite to the nested model I feel should be considered – that a healthy environment sustains a healthy society, which in turn allows a healthy economy (Giddings et al., 2002). Although I am not trying to suggest that a productive economy is not necessary, it is the primacy with which it has been emphasised at the expense of the environment that has caused many of the planet’s long-term, and wide-ranging problems – ozone-depletion from CFCs, land salinity from over-clearing, loss of biodiversity from monoculture cropping.

    A recent local solution from a WA councillor is to communicate to developers the environment’s value in economic language – to place a dollar value on the environmental cost of removing trees (Young, 2015). Whilst this would not be a negotiable issue for those species of biological importance, a sliding cost could be applied based on the age/ecological-/cultural importance of the tree, with the aim that the specimen would be integrated into a brownfield development, rather than removed. Equally, in a greenfield development, more thought might be given to expanding the urban boundaries of any major city if the environmental cost of removal of tens/hundreds of existent trees were converted to a dollar value? Perhaps if we change from the common model of the triple bottom line elements as equal, intersecting circles, and place environmental health as the driver of social and economic progress, long-term sustainability may a more achievable goal? I would be interested to hear what any of you think.

    Example 2

    Your discussion was excellent and raised an important question. How can spatial planning address the needs of a diverse community?

    ’..spatial planning is understood and practised differently because it is strongly rooted in and restricted to the specific traits of a society’ (Othengrafen 2012, 23)

    Friedmann (1967) introduced the notion of ‘nonbounded rationality’. This aimed to achieve environmental protection, social equity, economic growth and embrace cultural diversity (Othengrafen 2012, 37). The prescriptive nature of this approach embraced the ‘technical knowledge’ of planners and failed to acknowledge culture (Othengrafen 2012, 37). During the same period the Town Planning Regulation 1967 was introduced in Western Australia.This regulation manages ‘local planning strategies’ and ‘planning schemes’          (WAPCa 2014, 7). The Perth Metroplan with the Peel and Greater Bunbury scheme are both directed by the Town Planning Regulation 1967 (WAPCb 2015). Friedman’s theory of ‘nonbounded rationality’ may have also influenced the development of this regulation (Othengrafen 2012, 37).

    Currently a draft Planning and Development Regulation 2015 has been issued by the Western Australian Planning Commission  (WAPCc 2015). The draft regulation will amend the current Town Planning Regulation 1967. (WAPCa 2014,1). The Development Regulation 2015 was prepared in consultation with a number of stakeholders and groups (WAPCc, 2015) This process has enabled the flow of heterogeneous and diverse perspectives to guide spatial planning and is consistent with the post-modern collaborative approach. Through ‘ethnographic interviews’ planning practitioners and stakeholders in Hamburg and Helskini also practice post-modern methods of planning (Othengrafen 2012, 39).


    Othengrafen, F. 2012. Uncovering the Unconscious Dimensions of Planning : Using Culture as a Tool to Analyse Spatial Planning Practices. Farnham, Surrey, GBR: Ashgate Publishing Group, Accessed 23 December 2015.

    Western Australian Planning Commission (WAPCa). 2014. Introduction to the Western Australian Planning System. Perth, Western Australia, February. Accessed 23 December. 2015.

    Western Australian Planning Commissionb. 2015. (WAPCb). Regional planning schemes.

    Western Australian Planning Commission (WAPCc). 2015. Planning and Development Local Planning Schemes Regulation 2015 A Regulatory Impact Statement. Perth, Western Australia, August.  Accessed 23 December 2015.S

  • Fasting in Islam – Ramadan


    Fasting in Islam – Ramadan

    1. First choose a religious or secular ritual that you have an opportunity to attend as a participant-observer during this course. For example: Mass/Holy Communion or some other church service, Muslim Friday prayers, a wedding, a baby shower or bridal shower, a funeral, a tangi, an unveiling, a christening/baptism/naming ritual, a kava ceremony, a stag or hen/bachelorette party, a 21st birthday, some other major birthday celebration, an engagement party, an important sporting event or award ceremony, or some other ritual.
    2. Observe the ritual closely and make detailed field notes about it. If it is not appropriate to make notes at the time (perhaps because you are participating fully), write up the notes as soon after the event as you can.  Use these notes to help you write your essay and hand them in with the hard copy of your essay. The notes can be hand-written and do not have to be written in perfect sentences, because they are supposed to be recorded during or immediately after your field observation of the ritual.
    3. Write an essay of approximately3,000 words describing and analyzing the ritual. (Field-notes are not counted as part of the 3,000 words)
    • Describe the setting, the reason for the ritual, who was there, what happened.
    • Describe the structure of the ritual, the order of events.
    • If the ritual was a rite of passage, identify and discuss the various stages (pre-liminal, liminal, post-liminal).
    • Discuss the symbols associated with the ritual and their meanings and functions in this ritual.
    • Discuss why this ritual was important for the people who participated.
    • What did it mean for them?
    • What is the socio-cultural or religious significance of the ritual?


    • You need to spend about half of your essay describing the ritual and about half analysing the ritual’s social and cultural importance, especially for the participants. Both description and analysis are important elements of anthropological research.
    • You need to attach a list of references used in writing your essay. Some of these references will be specific to the particular ritual you choose, and some will be anthropological sources which discuss ritual. There is no set number of references you need to use (but fewer than five is too few).  Some useful readings for analysing rituals are included on this Stream site above under ‘Extra Resources’. The course textbook is also a useful reference.
    • Use ‘I’ (not the third person) when writing your essay.

    APA reference :

    should be more than five resource

  • Importance of understanding communication theory


    Importance of understanding communication theory

    Communication Theory

    Topic 1

    1. Understanding communication theory can help students in their future professions. Do you agree or disagree? Relate this to your future profession if you wish.

    Please read the following before starting your essay. Note: These readings should be a starting point for your research.

    • Chapter 5, Kossen, Kiernan & Lawrence
    • Module 1 – Communication theory

    For this planning assignment you will need to think about the topic. You will need to decide what your viewpoint on this topic is. In other words, do you agree, disagree, or perhaps think there are two sides to the question. What you think about the topic will be your thesis statement.